Bell Weights

The weight of a bell is one of its most distinguishing characteristics.  However, because of the different units of measurement used in various countries and because of the different methods by which weights are estimated, there is often some degree of uncertainty about bell weights.  The following treatise may not help you find out the exact weight of a particular bell, but it should help to clarify your understanding of what a particular reported weight means.

On this page, there are seven pre-formatted panels which were developed for the printed version of Carillons of the World, as follows:

  1. Explanation of "bourdon code number" as used in the database
  2. Diagram of the relationships among different methods of indicating bell size/weight/pitch
  3. How to convert between kilograms and pounds, with or without the conversion tables which follow
  4. Conversion tables - kilograms to pounds avoirdupois
  5. How to convert between British and American methods of counting weight, with or without the conversion tables which follow;
    Conversion table - British cwt to net pounds (0 to 2 tons)
  6. Conversion table - British cwt to net pounds (2 to 20 tons);
    tons versus tonnes (American, British and metric)
  7. How to convert between British system and kilograms;
    Conversion table - British cwt to kilograms (0 to 1 ton)
The term "British" in this context is shorthand for "British Imperial system".

On a separate page, there are illustrations of several bell weight tables that reflect the pattern weights used by various major American bellfoundries.

There is a convenient online mass conversion calculator which may be used to convert between different systems of measuring weight.  However, it is limited in its capability to handle the British Imperial system, for which some of the tables below are well adapted.  Another choice is our own online calculator for converting between different units of measure for the weights of bells.


Supplementary Information on Weights                                                                             1-Dec-03   Page  1
 
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*                                                                |                                                                *
*             EXPLANATION OF "BOURDON CODE NUMBER"               |  This method of numbering the bell notes permits a two-digit   *
*                                                                |  number to reflect the entire range of practical tower bell    *
*  A bourdon code number is used to give a general indication    |  weights.  Using any other method would take 3 to 5 digits or  *
*  of the weight of a tower bell instrument by reflecting the    |  characters.                                                   *
*  approximate pitch or note of the heaviest bell in it.         |                                                                *
*                                                                |  A difference of 12 in code numbers always reflects a change   *
*  The code table in the left column of page 1 of the Code       |  of one octave in pitch.  Code "13" is "middle C", so a tower  *
*  Interpretation section shows the relationship between code    |  bell instrument which has a C key connected to a bell of      *
*  numbers and notes using approximate bell weights in kilo-     |  this pitch and weight is in concert pitch.                    *
*  grams.  The following tables show other ways of looking at    |                                                                *
*  the bourdon code numbers.                                     |  Code number "1" corresponds to the bourdon of the carillon    *
*                                                                |  in Riverside Church, New York--the heaviest bell now in any   *
*  Bourdon code number versus international pitch notation:      |  carillon in the world, and unlikely to be surpassed.  The     *
*      1=c              13=c'             25=c"                  |  few heavier tower bells which exist are either isolated       *
*      2=c#/d-flat      14=c#'/d-flat'    26=c#"/d-flat"         |  (as in Asian temples) or are used in ways which do not        *
*      3=d              15=d'             27=d"                  |  correspond to the musical scale (as in Russian zvons).        *
*      4=d#/e-flat      16=d#'/e-flat'    28=d#"/e-flat"         |  Isolated bells of more than a few tons are listed in plain    *
*      5=e              17=e'             29=e"                  |  language in the MIL under "Great Bells", and the enormous     *
*      6=f              18=f'             30=f"                  |  bells in a few zvons are handled by the "+" mark described    *
*      7=f#/g-flat      19=f#'/g-flat'    31=f#"/g-flat"         |  on page 1 of the Code Interpretation section.                 *
*      8=g              20=g'             32=g"                  |                                                                *
*      9=g#/a-flat      21=g#'/a-flat'    33=g#"/a-flat"         |  On page 2 of this section is a diagram showing graphically    *
*     10=a              22=a'             34=a"                  |  some of the relationships which have been presented in        *
*     11=a#/b-flat      23=a#'/b-flat'    ...                    |  tables and plain language above.                              *
*     12=b              24=b'                etc.                |                                                                *
*                                                                |  The correspondence between weight and pitch is not exact.     *
*  Bourdon code number versus European pitch notation:           |  The weights of bass bells of the same pitch can vary by as    *
*      1=  c0           13=  c1           25=  c2                |  much as 10%, and trebles by as much as 50%, depending on the  *
*      2= cis0/des0     14= cis1/des1     26= cis2/des2          |  profiles used by the bellfounder.  In this book, pitch is     *
*      3=  d0           15=  d1           27=  d2                |  more important than exact weight in determining the bourdon   *
*      4= dis0/es0      16= dis1/es1      28= dis2/es2           |  code number to use in the CIL.                                *
*      5=  e0           17=  e1           29=  e2                |                                                                *
*      6=  f0           18=  f1           30=  f2                |  Weights given in the last table in the opposite column and    *
*      7= fis0/ges0     19= fis1/ges1     31= fis2/ges2          |  in the similar table on page 1 of the Code Interpretation     *
*      8=  g0           20=  g1           32=  g2                |  section are NOT equivalent, and should not be treated as      *
*      9= gis0/as0      21= gis1/as1      33= gis2/as2           |  such.  They are simply round numbers chosen to show a general *
*     10=  a0           22=  a1           34=  a2                |  characteristic.  For conversions among weight systems, see    *
*     11= ais0/bes0     23= ais1/bes1     ...                    |  the tables and procedures on pages 3-7 of this section.  They *
*     12=  b0           24=  b1              etc.                |  show the relationships among the metric (SI), American and    *
*                                                                |  British systems to varying degrees of accuracy.               *
*  Bourdon code number versus approximate weight in pounds:      |                                                                *
*      1=C  42000 lb    13=C  5000 lb     25=C  600 lb           |  The difference between accuracy and precision often causes    *
*      2=C# 36000 lb    14=C# 4200 lb     26=C# 500 lb           |  confusion in the reporting of bell weights.  Accuracy refers  *
*      3=D  31000 lb    15=D  3500 lb     27=D  420 lb           |  to the number of significant digits in a number; precision    *
*      4=D# 26000 lb    16=D# 2900 lb     28=D# 350 lb           |  refers to the value of the least digit used.  If a weight is  *
*      5=E  21000 lb    17=E  2400 lb     29=E  300 lb           |  reported as 40,000 lbs, the precision is 1 pound (the unit of *
*      6=F  17000 lb    18=F  2000 lb     30=F  250 lb           |  the rightmost zero), but the accuracy may be only 1 ton.  If  *
*      7=F# 14000 lb    19=F# 1700 lb     31=F# 225 lb           |  that is the case, then it is less misleading to report the    *
*      8=G  12000 lb    20=G  1400 lb     32=G  200 lb           |  weight as 20 short tons.  When integer fractions are used     *
*      9=G# 10000 lb    21=G# 1200 lb     33=G# 175 lb           |  (such as 1/2) there is often less confusion between accuracy  *
*     10=A   8500 lb    22=A  1000 lb     34=A  155 lb           |  and precision.                                                *
*     11=A#  7000 lb    23=A#  850 lb     ...                    |                                                                *
*     12=B   5900 lb    24=B   700 lb        etc.                |  For further information, see under "Weights and Measures" in  *
*                                                                |  the Encyclopedia Britannica.                                  *
*                                                                |                                                                *
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Supplementary Information on Weights                                                                             1-Dec-03   Page  2
 
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 Diagram of the relationship among different methods of indicating bell size/weight/pitch



  Code              1            13            25            37            49            61            73            85
   number           |             |             |             |             |             |             |             |
                    |             |             |             |             |             |             |             |
  Keyboard           # #   # # #   # #   # # #   # #   # # #   # #   # # #   # #   # # #   # #   # # #   # #   # # #
   image            C D E F G A B c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c d e f g a b c
                    |         |   |         |   |         |   |         |   |         |   |         |   |         |   |
  Octave            c0            c1            c2            c3            c4            c5            c6            c7
                    |             |             |             |             |             |             |             |
  Weight            |             |             |             |             |             |             |             |
   of C            20 tons      2.5 tons      600 lb        100 lb         20 lb        15 lb         12 lb         10 lb
                    |         |   |         |   |         |   |         |   |         |   |         |   |          |  |
  Frequency (Hz)    |        220  |        440  |        880  |       1760  |       3520  |       7040  |       14080 |
   of "A" notes     |             |             |             |             |             |             |             |
                    |             |       |     |   |   |  |  | | | | |     |             |             |             |
  Harmonic series   1             2  ^    3     4   5   6  7+ 8 9 10| 12    |             |             |             |
   based on C       |             |  |          |             |    11+      |             |             |             |
                    |             |  minor      |             |             |             |             |             |
                    |             |  third      |             |             |             |             |             |
           Bourdon of             |                                                       |                   Treble of
           Riverside Church,      |                                                       |                   Kirk-in-the-Hills,
           New York City,         |                                                       |                   Bloomfield Hills,
           New York, USA          |<----------- range of a 4-octave instrument ---------->|                   Michigan, USA
                                  |                  in concert pitch                     |
                              "middle C"                                               top note
                              on a piano                                              on a piano
                          (read one octave lower
                           on most carillon music)


 Ton weights in the lower octave are in short tons.


 Frequencies shown represent the "strike tone" of the bell (see Glossary).  A lower frequency, the "hum tone", develops later.


 The octave numbering system used above corresponds to the range of tuned tower bells, and differs slightly from other commonly
 used systems.  For example, piano tuners designate the top C of a piano as "c8".  Some piano players and composers use a
 "small/great" system in which the top note of a piano is c5, middle C is c1, next lower is "small c", then "great C", then
 "contra C", down to "sub-contra A".






 The code numbering scheme is a free adaptation of one originally developed by carillon architect Frederick C. Mayer.
 That may be found in "Carillon Music & Singing Towers of the Old World and the New," by William Gorham Rice, Revised edition,
 following page 278c.  The principal difference lies in the separation of two items of information which Mayer combined
 into one, namely the bourdon pitch and the number of missing bass semitones.


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Supplementary Information on Weights                                                                             1-Dec-03   Page  3
 
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*                                                                |                                                                *
*  The three tables on the following page relate weights in      |   Abbreviation style:  Here "s" is used with "kg" or "lb"      *
*  kilograms (abbreviated "kg") and those in pounds (abbrevi-    |   only for plurals in plain text, not with numeric values.     *
*  ated "lb").  They are designed mainly to convert kilograms    |                                                                *
*  to pounds, but can be used for the opposite conversion also.  |                                                                *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*  o  To convert from kilograms to pounds, first drop (or        |   o  To convert from pounds to kilograms, look in the table    *
*     round) any fractional part.  Then separate the value       |      bodies for your starting number, or for a pair of num-    *
*     into thousands, hundreds, tens and units portions.         |      bers which bracket your starting number.  Notice that     *
*     (Example:  815 = 800 + 10 + 5)                             |      numbers in the tables increase from left to right         *
*                                                                |      across each row, and that the right end of one row is     *
*     Next, read down the left column to find the row for the    |      less than the left end of the next one.                   *
*     most significant value.  This may be in the first,         |      (Example:  4700 pounds lies between 4630 and 4850 in      *
*     second or third table, depending on the magnitude.         |      the second row of the third table.)                       *
*     (Using the example above, 800 is the 8th row of the        |                                                                *
*     second table.)                                             |      If you are in the first table, pick the value which is    *
*                                                                |      closest to your starting value; if you are in the         *
*     Then read across the top row of that table to find the     |      second or third table, pick the largest number which is   *
*     column for the next lower value of kgs.                    |      below the starting value.                                 *
*     (Using the same example, 10 heads the second column of     |      (Example, continued:  pick 4630)                          *
*     the second table.)                                         |                                                                *
*                                                                |      Add together the kg values at the left end of the row     *
*     At the intersection of this column and row find the net    |      and the top of the column for the number you found.       *
*     lbs equivalent to the total number of kgs.                 |      (Example, continued:  2000 + 100 = 2100)                  *
*     (In the example, this is 1785.7 lb for 810 kg.)            |                                                                *
*                                                                |      If you started in the first table, you are finished.      *
*     If you began in the first table, you are now done.         |      If you started in the second or third table, then         *
*                                                                |      subtract the value you found in the table from your       *
*     If you began in the second table, and you had a non-zero   |      starting value, use the same process to look up the       *
*     units value, then use row 0 of the first table to find     |      remainder in the first table, and add the results         *
*     its equivalent.  Add the two results together.             |      together.                                                 *
*     (In the example, the leftover units are 5; in the first    |      (Example, continued:  4700 - 4630 = 70, which lies        *
*     table, row 0 column 5 yields 11.0; adding the two values,  |      between 68.3 and 70.5 in the fourth row of the first      *
*     1785.7 + 11.0 = 1796.7 lb.  You might wish to round this   |      table.  Since 70 is closer to 70.5 than to 68.3,          *
*     to 1797 pounds; for some purposes you might instead        |      pick 70.5; then the row and column values are 30 and 2.   *
*     choose to use either 1795 or 1800 pounds.)                 |      30 + 2 = 32;  2100 + 32 = 2132;  so 4700 lb = 2132 kg,    *
*                                                                |      which could be rounded to 2130 kg.)                       *
*     If you began in the third table, you will have both tens   |                                                                *
*     and units values remaining.  If either is non-zero, then   |                                                                *
*     use these two in the first table in a similar way.         |      NOTE:  Tables are accurate and precise to the last        *
*     (Example:  2815 = 2000 + 800 + 10 + 5;                     |       digit shown.  Accuracy of your result will be no         *
*       from the third table, 2000 and 800 yield 6173;           |       greater than the accuracy of the figure with which       *
*       from the first table, 10 and 5 yield 33.1;               |       you began.                                               *
*       then 6173 + 33 = 6206, so 2815 kg = 6206 lb.)            |                                                                *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*  o  To convert kilograms to pounds mentally, multiply by 2     |   o  To convert pounds to kilograms mentally, divide by 2,     *
*     and add 10%.  These two steps can be done in either        |      subtract 10%, and add back 1%.                            *
*     order, and are easiest to do with round numbers.           |      Accuracy is between two and three digits.                 *
*     Accuracy is between two and three digits.                  |      (Example:  given 1800 lb,  1800  2 = 900;                *
*     (Example:  for 300 kg,  2 x 300 = 600;  10% of 600 is      |      900 - 90 + 9 = 819;  so 1800 lbs = 819 kg, which could    *
*     60;  600 + 60 = 660;  so 300 kg = 660 lb.)                 |      be rounded to 820 kg.)                                    *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*  o  If using a calculator, use 2.20462 as the multiplier to    |    o  If using a calculator, use 0.453592 as the multiplier    *
*     preserve up to 6 digits of accuracy.                       |       to preserve up to 6 digits of accuracy.                  *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*                                                                |                                                                *
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Supplementary Information on Weights                                                                             1-Dec-03   Page  4
 
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*                                                                                                          *
*  Kilograms to pounds avoirdupois                                                                         *
*                                                                                                          *
*       \kg:       0       1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9               *
*     kg \     =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====               *
*          0     0.0     2.2     4.4     6.6     8.8    11.0    13.2    15.4    17.6    19.8               *
*         10    22.0    24.3    26.5    28.7    30.9    33.1    35.3    37.5    39.7    41.9               *
*         20    44.1    46.3    48.5    50.7    52.9    55.1    57.3    59.5    61.7    63.9               *
*         30    66.1    68.3    70.5    72.8    75.0    77.2    79.4    81.6    83.8    86.0               *
*         40    88.2    90.4    92.6    94.8    97.0    99.2   101.4   103.6   105.8   108.0               *
*         50   110.2   112.4   114.6   116.8   119.0   121.3   123.5   125.7   127.9   130.1               *
*         60   132.3   134.5   136.7   138.9   141.1   143.3   145.5   147.7   149.9   152.1               *
*         70   154.3   156.5   158.7   160.9   163.1   165.3   167.6   169.8   172.0   174.2               *
*         80   176.4   178.6   180.8   183.0   185.2   187.4   189.6   191.8   194.0   196.2               *
*         90   198.4   200.6   202.8   205.0   207.2   209.4   211.6   213.8   216.1   218.3               *
*        100   220.5   222.7   224.9   227.1   229.3   231.5   233.7   235.9   238.1   240.3               *
*                                                                                                          *
*      \kg:        0      10      20      30      40      50      60      70      80      90               *
*    kg \     ======  ======  ======  ======  ======  ======  ======  ======  ======  ======               *
*        100   220.5   242.5   264.6   286.6   308.6   330.7   352.7   374.8   396.8   418.9               *
*        200   440.9   463.0   485.0   507.1   529.1   551.2   573.2   595.2   617.3   639.3               *
*        300   661.4   683.4   705.5   727.5   749.6   771.6   793.7   815.7   837.8   859.8               *
*        400   881.8   903.9   925.9   948.0   970.0   992.1  1014.1  1036.2  1058.2  1080.3               *
*        500  1102.3  1124.4  1146.4  1168.4  1190.5  1212.5  1234.6  1256.6  1278.7  1300.7               *
*        600  1322.8  1344.8  1366.9  1388.9  1411.0  1433.0  1455.0  1477.1  1499.1  1521.2               *
*        700  1543.2  1565.3  1587.3  1609.4  1631.4  1653.5  1675.5  1697.6  1719.6  1741.6               *
*        800  1763.7  1785.7  1807.8  1829.8  1851.9  1873.9  1896.0  1918.0  1940.1  1962.1               *
*        900  1984.2  2006.2  2028.3  2050.3  2072.3  2094.4  2116.4  2138.5  2160.5  2182.6               *
*       1000  2204.6  2226.7  2248.7  2270.8  2292.8  2314.9  2336.9  2358.9  2381.0  2403.0               *
*                                                                                             *Approximate *
*     \kg:         0*    100     200     300     400     500     600     700     800     900   metric tons *
*   kg \       =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =====   =========== *
*       1000    2205    2425    2646    2866    3086    3307    3527    3748    3968    4189       1       *
*       2000    4409    4630    4850    5071    5291    5512    5732    5952    6173    6393       2       *
*       3000    6614    6834    7055    7275    7496    7716    7937    8157    8378    8598       3       *
*       4000    8818    9039    9259    9480    9700    9921   10141   10362   10582   10803       4       *
*       5000   11023   11244   11464   11684   11905   12125   12346   12566   12787   13007       5       *
*       6000   13228   13448   13669   13889   14110   14330   14550   14771   14991   15212       6       *
*       7000   15432   15653   15873   16094   16314   16535   16755   16976   17196   17416       7       *
*       8000   17637   17857   18078   18298   18519   18739   18960   19180   19401   19621       8       *
*       9000   19842   20062   20283   20503   20723   20944   21164   21385   21605   21826       9       *
*      10000   22046   22267   22487   22708   22928   23149   23369   23589   23810   24030      10       *
*      11000   24251   24471   24692   24912   25133   25353   25574   25794   26015   26235      11       *
*      12000   26455   26676   26896   27117   27337   27558   27778   27999   28219   28440      12       *
*      13000   28660   28881   29101   29321   29542   29762   29983   30203   30424   30644      13       *
*      14000   30865   31085   31306   31526   31747   31967   32187   32408   32628   32849      14       *
*      15000   33069   33290   33510   33731   33951   34172   34392   34613   34833   35053      15       *
*      16000   35274   35494   35715   35935   36156   36376   36597   36817   37038   37258      16       *
*      17000   37479   37699   37919   38140   38360   38581   38801   39022   39242   39463      17       *
*      18000   39683   39904   40124   40345   40565   40785   41006   41226   41447   41667      18       *
*      19000   41888   42108   42329   42549   42770   42990   43211   43431   43651   43872      19       *
*      20000   44092   44313   44533   44754   44974   45195   45415   45636   45856   46077      20       *
*                                                                                              (see        *
*                                                                                               page 6)    *
*                                                                                                          *
*                                                                                                          *
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Supplementary Information on Weights                                                                             1-Dec-03   Page  5
 
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*                                                                |                                                                *
*  The tables in the opposite column and on the following page   |  British (cwt-qtr) to net pounds (up to 2 tons)                *
*  relate British and American methods of counting weight.  In   |                                                                *
*  both methods, the unit of weight is the avoirdupois pound,    |        \qtr:      0       1       2       3                    *
*  which is abbreviated "lb" (singular) or "lbs" (plural).  The  |     cwt \     =====   =====   =====   =====                    *
*  difference between the methods lies in the way that pounds    |           0       0      28      56      84                    *
*  are counted.                                                  |           1     112     140     168     196                    *
*                                                                |           2     224     252     280     308                    *
*  The British method, which is the standard used for change-    |           3     336     364     392     420                    *
*  ringing bells, is based on the [long] hundredweight, which is |           4     448     476     504     532                    *
*  112 lbs.  It is abbreviated "cwt" whether singular or plural. |           5     560     588     616     644                    *
*                                                                |           6     672     700     728     756                    *
*   o   One fourth of a hundredweight is a quarter.  It is       |           7     784     812     840     868                    *
*       abbreviated "qtr" or "qr" (singular) or "qrs" (plural).  |           8     896     924     952     980                    *
*                                                                |           9    1008    1036    1064    1092                    *
*   o   Twenty cwt is a ton (not abbreviated).                   |          10    1120    1148    1176    1204                    *
*                                                                |          11    1232    1260    1288    1316                    *
*   (Another British counter, the stone, is one-eighth cwt, or   |          12    1344    1372    1400    1428                    *
*   14 lbs; it is commonly used for weighing people, but not     |          13    1456    1484    1512    1540                    *
*   bells.)                                                      |          14    1568    1596    1624    1652                    *
*                                                                |          15    1680    1708    1736    1764                    *
*  When any one of these counters is used by itself, its abbre-  |          16    1792    1820    1848    1876                    *
*  viation is written with the number (for example, 7 cwt).      |          17    1904    1932    1960    1988                    *
*  When a weight is expressed to the nearest qtr, the standard   |          18    2016    2044    2072    2100                    *
*  fractions are used.  (Examples:  2 cwt;  3 tons 7 cwt).     |          19    2128    2156    2184    2212                    *
*  However, when a weight is expressed to the nearest pound, no  |          20    2240*   2268    2296    2324     *  1 British   *
*  abbreviations are used; instead, the numbers are separated    |          21    2352    2380    2408    2436            ton     *
*  by dashes in the order cwt-qtr-lbs or tons-cwt-qtr-lbs.  For  |          22    2464    2492    2520    2548                    *
*  example, 17-3-12 represents 2000 lbs.                         |          23    2576    2604    2632    2660                    *
*                                                                |          24    2688    2716    2744    2772                    *
*                                                                |          25    2800    2828    2856    2884                    *
*  Using the table at right:                                     |          26    2912    2940    2968    2996                    *
*                                                                |          27    3024    3052    3080    3108                    *
*  o   To convert from British to American, read down the left   |          28    3136    3164    3192    3220                    *
*      column to find the row for the number of cwt, then read   |          29    3248    3276    3304    3332                    *
*      across the top row to find the column for the number of   |          30    3360    3388    3416    3444                    *
*      qtrs.  At the intersection of this column and row find    |          31    3472    3500    3528    3556                    *
*      the net pounds equivalent to cwt-qtr; then add the        |          32    3584    3612    3640    3668                    *
*      remaining lbs to find find the total.                     |          33    3696    3724    3752    3780                    *
*      For example, a British weight of 1-2-3 is equal to an     |          34    3808    3836    3864    3892                    *
*      American weight of 171 pounds.                            |          35    3920    3948    3976    4004                    *
*      (In row 1, column 2 yields 168; add 3 to obtain 171.)     |          36    4032    4060    4088    4116                    *
*                                                                |          37    4144    4172    4200    4228                    *
*  o   To convert from American to British, search the body of   |          38    4256    4284    4312    4340                    *
*      the table for the largest number which does not exceed    |          39    4368    4396    4424    4452                    *
*      the American weight given.  The number at the left end    |          40    4480*   4508    4536    4564     *  2 British   *
*      of that row is the cwts, and the number at the top of     |                                                      Imperial  *
*      that column is the qtrs.  The difference between the      |                                                      tons      *
*      number given and the number found is the lbs.             |     For weights exceeding this table, see next page.           *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*      For example, an American weight of 123 lbs is 1-0-11 in   |   British Imperial units:                                      *
*      the British method of counting.                           |     ton = 20 cwt  (2240 lb)                                    *
*      (The closest number in the table body is 112, which is    |     cwt = hundredweight (112 lb)                               *
*      in row 1, column 0; then 123 minus 112 equals 11.)        |     qtr = quarter (28 lb)                                      *
*                                                                |     lbs = pounds                                               *
*                                                                |                                                                *
**************************************************************** | ****************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights                                                                             1-Dec-03   Page  6
 
*********************************************************************************************************
*                                                                                                       *
* British (cwt) to net pounds                                                                           *
*                                                                                                       *
*       \cwt:     0      1      2      3      4         5      6      7      8      9    British tons   *
*    cwt \    =====  =====  =====  =====  =====     =====  =====  =====  =====  =====    ============   *
*         40   4480   4592   4704   4816   4928      5040   5152   5264   5376   5488         2         *
*         50   5600   5712   5824   5936   6048      6160   6272   6384   6496   6608         2 1/2     *
*         60   6720   6832   6944   7056   7168      7280   7392   7504   7616   7728         3         *
*         70   7840   7952   8064   8176   8288      8400   8512   8624   8736   8848         3 1/2     *
*         80   8960   9072   9184   9296   9408      9520   9632   9744   9856   9968         4         *
*         90  10080  10192  10304  10416  10528     10640  10752  10864  10976  11088         4 1/2     *
*        100  11200  11312  11424  11536  11648     11760  11872  11984  12096  12208         5         *
*        110  12320  12432  12544  12656  12768     12880  12992  13104  13216  13328         5 1/2     *
*        120  13440  13552  13664  13776  13888     14000  14112  14224  14336  14448         6         *
*        130  14560  14672  14784  14896  15008     15120  15232  15344  15456  15568         6 1/2     *
*        140  15680  15792  15904  16016  16128     16240  16352  16464  16576  16688         7         *
*        150  16800  16912  17024  17136  17248     17360  17472  17584  17696  17808         7 1/2     *
*        160  17920  18032  18144  18256  18368     18480  18592  18704  18816  18928         8         *
*        170  19040  19152  19264  19376  19488     19600  19712  19824  19936  20048         8 1/2     *
*        180  20160  20272  20384  20496  20608     20720  20832  20944  21056  21168         9         *
*        190  21280  21392  21504  21616  21728     21840  21952  22064  22176  22288         9 1/2     *
*        200  22400* 22512  22624  22736  22848     22960  23072  23184  23296  23408        10         *
*        210  23520  23632  23744  23856  23968     24080  24192  24304  24416  24528        10 1/2     *
*        220  24640  24752  24864  24976  25088     25200  25312  25424  25536  25648        11         *
*        230  25760  25872  25984  26096  26208     26320  26432  26544  26656  26768        11 1/2     *
*        240  26880  26992  27104  27216  27328     27440  27552  27664  27776  27888        12         *
*        250  28000  28112  28224  28336  28448     28560  28672  28784  28896  29008        12 1/2     *
*        260  29120  29232  29344  29456  29568     29680  29792  29904  30016  30128        13         *
*        270  30240  30352  30464  30576  30688     30800  30912  31024  31136  31248        13 1/2     *
*        280  31360  31472  31584  31696  31808     31920  32032  32144  32256  32368        14         *
*        290  32480  32592  32704  32816  32928     33040  33152  33264  33376  33488        14 1/2     *
*        300  33600  33712  33824  33936  34048     34160  34272  34384  34496  34608        15         *
*        310  34720  34832  34944  35056  35168     35280  35392  35504  35616  35728        15 1/2     *
*        320  35840  35952  36064  36176  36288     36400  36512  36624  36736  36848        16         *
*        330  36960  37072  37184  37296  37408     37520  37632  37744  37856  37968        16 1/2     *
*        340  38080  38192  38304  38416  38528     38640  38752  38864  38976  39088        17         *
*        350  39200  39312  39424  39536  39648     39760  39872  39984  40096  40208        17 1/2     *
*        360  40320  40432  40544  40656  40768     40880  40992  41104  41216  41328        18         *
*        370  41440  41552  41664  41776  41888     42000  42112  42224  42336  42448        18 1/2     *
*        380  42560  42672  42784  42896  43008     43120  43232  43344  43456  43568        19         *
*        390  43680  43792  43904  44016  44128     44240  44352  44464  44576  44688        19 1/2     *
*        400  44800* 44912  45024  45136  45248     45360  45472  45584  45696  45808        20         *
*                                                                                                       *
* - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *
*                                                                                                       *
*   TONS & TONNES:                                                                                      *
*                                                                                                       *
*     2000 lbs = 1 American [short] ton                                                                 *
*                                                                                                       *
*     2205 lbs = 1000 kg = 1 metric ton = 1 tonne         - \                                           *
*                                                            \                                          *
*     2240 lbs = 1 American long ton                      --- >  Note that these three kinds of "ton"   *
*                                                            /   differ by less than 2%.                *
*     2240 lbs = 1 British Imperial ton                   - /                                           *
*                                                                                                       *
*                                                                                                       *
*********************************************************************************************************

Supplementary Information on Weights                                                                             1-Dec-03   Page  7
 
**************************************************************** | ****************************************************************
*                                                                |                                                                *
*  The tables in the opposite column relate British and metric   |                                                                *
*  methods of measuring weight, both of which have been intro-   |  British (cwt-qtr-lbs) to kilograms (kgs)                      *
*  duced above in relationship to pounds avoirdupois.            |                                                                *
*                                                                |       \qrs:      0        1        2        3         \  kg    *
*                                                                |    cwt \    ======   ======   ======   ======       lb \ ===   *
*  o  To convert from British to metric, first read down the     |         0      0.0     12.7     25.4     38.1        0   0.0   *
*     left column of the large table to find the row for the     |         1     50.8     63.5     76.2     88.9        1   0.5   *
*     number of cwts, then read across the top row of the same   |         2    101.6    114.3    127.0    139.7        2   0.9   *
*     table to find the column for the number of qtrs.  At the   |         3    152.4    165.1    177.8    190.5        3   1.4   *
*     intersection of this row and column find the kgs equiva-   |         4    203.2    215.9    228.6    241.3        4   1.8   *
*     lent to cwt-qtr.  Next, use the small table to find the    |         5    254.0    266.7    279.4    292.1        5   2.3   *
*     kgs equivalent to the lbs.  Finally, add the two results   |         6    304.8    317.5    330.2    342.9        6   2.7   *
*     together.                                                  |         7    355.6    368.3    381.0    393.7        7   3.2   *
*                                                                |         8    406.4    419.1    431.8    444.5        8   3.6   *
*     Example:  given a British weight of 1-2-3,                 |         9    457.2    469.9    482.6    495.3        9   4.1   *
*       in row 1, column 2 of the large table find 76.2;         |        10    508.0    520.7    533.4    546.1       10   4.5   *
*       in the small table find 1.4 opposite 3 lb;               |        11    558.8    571.5    584.2    596.9       11   5.0   *
*       76.2 + 1.4 = 77.6 kg total.  This would probably be      |        12    609.6    622.3    635.0    647.7       12   5.5   *
*       rounded to 78 kg.                                        |        13    660.4    673.1    685.8    698.5       13   5.9   *
*                                                                |        14    711.2    723.9    736.6    749.3       14   6.4   *
*                                                                |        15    762.0    774.7    787.4    800.1       15   6.8   *
*  o  To convert from metric to British, search the body of      |        16    812.8    825.5    838.2    850.9       16   7.3   *
*     the large table for the largest number which does not      |        17    863.6    876.3    889.0    901.7       17   7.7   *
*     exceed the metric weight given.  The number at the left    |        18    914.4    927.1    939.8    952.5       18   8.2   *
*     end of that row is the cwts, and the number at the top     |        19    965.2    977.9    990.6   1003.3       19   8.6   *
*     of that column is the qtrs.  Subtract the number found     |        20   1016.0   1028.7   1041.4   1054.1       20   9.1   *
*     in the table from the starting number; then find this      |        21   1066.8   1079.5   1092.2   1105.0       21   9.5   *
*     remainder (or nearest value) in the second column of the   |        22   1117.7   1130.4   1143.1   1155.8       22  10.0   *
*     small table and read the lbs equivalent from the first     |        23   1168.5   1181.2   1193.9   1206.6       23  10.5   *
*     column of that table.                                      |        24   1219.3   1232.0   1244.7   1257.4       24  10.9   *
*                                                                |        25   1270.1   1282.8   1295.5   1308.2       25  11.4   *
*     Example:  given a metric weight of 255 kg,                 |        26   1320.9   1333.6   1346.3   1359.0       26  11.8   *
*       in row 5 of the large table, 255 lies between 254.0      |        27   1371.7   1384.4   1397.1   1409.8       27  12.3   *
*       and 266.7; row 5 represents 5 cwt, and column 0 repre-   |        28   1422.5   1435.2   1447.9   1460.6       28  12.7   *
*       sents 0 qtr.                                             |        29   1473.3   1486.0   1498.7   1511.4                  *
*       Subtracting 254.0 from 255 gives 1.0; in the small       |        30   1524.1   1536.8   1549.5   1562.2                  *
*       table, this is closer to 0.9 than to 1.4, so use 2 lb.   |        31   1574.9   1587.6   1600.3   1613.0                  *
*       Then 255 kg = 5-0-2 (or 5 cwt 2 lbs) in British          |        32   1625.7   1638.4   1651.1   1663.8                  *
*       terminology.                                             |        33   1676.5   1689.2   1701.9   1714.6                  *
*                                                                |        34   1727.3   1740.0   1752.7   1765.4                  *
*                                                                |        35   1778.1   1790.8   1803.5   1816.2                  *
*                                                                |        36   1828.9   1841.6   1854.3   1867.0                  *
*                                                                |        37   1879.7   1892.4   1905.1   1917.8                  *
*                                                                |        38   1930.5   1943.2   1955.9   1968.6                  *
*                                                                |        39   1981.3   1994.0   2006.7   2019.4                  *
*                                                                |        40   2032.1   2044.8   2057.5   2070.2                  *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*                                                                |        For weights exceeding this table, first convert to      *
*                                                                |        total pounds using the procedure on page 5 of this      *
*                                                                |        section; then convert pounds to kilograms using the     *
*                                                                |        procedure on page 3 of this section.                    *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*                                                                |                                                                *
*                                                                |                                                          (END.)*
**************************************************************** | ****************************************************************

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