Instrument Type Abbreviations in indexes

In most index pages on this Website, the first or only line of each entry usually ends with an abbreviated indication of the type of instrument beiong referenced.  (For indexes to a single type of instrument, this indication is omitted as unnecessary.)  Those abbreviations are explained briefly in the following table, and more extensively below.  The final part of this page explains compound types.

Short definitions:

  trad      - traditional carillon
  trad#     - traditional carillon now,
              but was a chime at the date cited
  trad*     - traditional carillon now,
              but had some other mechanism at the date cited
  non-trad  - carillon with non-traditional mechanism
  non-trad# - carillon with non-traditional mechanism now,
              but was a chime at the date cited
  non-trad* - carillon with non-traditional mechanism now,
              but had a traditional keyboard at the date cited
  hybrid    - carillon with baton keyboard but electric action
              or non-baton keyboard with direct mechanical action
  mech?     - carillon-sized instrument with unknown mechanism;
              might be traditional or non-traditional
  chime     - chime (any mechanism except peals, rings and zvons)
  chimola   - chime of hemispheric bells (any mechanism)
  peal      - chime-sized set of free-swinging bells
  ring      - bells hung for full-circle swinging (chime-sized)
  ring*     - ring that has been converted to a chime
  zvon      - chime hung and rung in the Russian or Orthodox church style 
  tubular   - carillon-sized or chime-sized instrument
              made of heavy-gauge tubular bells
  coll      - collection of bells not forming a complete instrument
  great     - great bell (over 4 tonnes weight) not in a chime or carillon;
  (...)     - instrument of type "..." which was replaced; 
              link is to a later entry for the same site
  [...]     - instrument of type "..." which is defunct and was not replaced;
              link is to "sites that are no more"
Type abbreviations with "#" or "*" appended are found only in bellfoundry indexes, and reflect physical changes between one or more earlier phases and the latest technical information available about that instrument.

Expanded definitions (see also the Glossary):

Unless otherwise specified, all bells in all types of instruments are hung "dead", i.e., do not swing.

trad
traditional carillon - at least 23 bells, mostly or entirely in chromatic order, with baton keyboard and mechanical action

non-trad
non-traditional carillon - at least 23 bells, any mechanism except baton keyboard

hybrid
hybrid carillon - at least 23 bells, with baton keyboard but electric action

mech?
carillon-sized instrument with unknown mechanism, which might be either traditional or non-traditional; for the moment, these may be listed in both "trad" and "non-trad" type-specific indexes.

chime
an instrument of 8 to 22 bells, regardless of mechanism (excluding chimolas, peals, rings and zvons, all of which are separately identified); usually more diatonic than chromatic

chimola
a chime made of hemispherical bells

peal
set of bells hung to swing, each at its own natural frequency; can be motor-driven or manually swung, but not full circle unless noted in Remarks (e.g., Spanish flywheel); all are chime-sized

ring
five or more tower bells hung to swing full circle (Veronese style); all are chime-sized
All rings outside Italy are hung and rung English style (unless tagged with an added letter identifying one of the Italian styles), and only those outside the British Isles are listed.
Rings in Italy may be hung and rung in any of several styles, and only those of eight or more bells are listed.  The different styles are indicated by tags--Veronese (V), Milanese (M) or Ambrosian (A).

zvon
chime hung and rung in the Russian or Orthodox church style (non-swinging, non-diatonic, rung by hand with clapper ropes); always categorized as a chime even when carillon-sized

tubular
carillon-sized or chime-sized instrument made of heavy-gauge tubular bells
All carillon-sized tubular-bell instruments have electric action, and hence are classified as non-traditional.

coll
collection - a group of unrelated tower bells, not forming a musical instrument of any kind (though a subset of the bells may form an instrument); not classified as either carillon-sized or chime-sized; included in geographic indexes but not foundry or type indexes

Compound types:

.../...
Generically, two of the types defined above are contained within one set of tower bells.  In most cases, the first type contains (or utilizes) all or most of the bells, while the second type contains (or utilizes) the same or a smaller number of them.  Some common examples follow:

.../great
a great bell is included in a larger instrument (specified ...)

trad/great(5)
five great bells are included in a traditional carillon

chime/ring
chime/ring(V)
some or all of the bells within a chime (but not just one or two) are hung for ringing (Veronese style in the second instance)

ring/chime
some (but not all) of the bells within a ring may also be chimed


Return to Indexes to bellfoundries.


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This page was created on 30-Jul-15 and last updated on 27-May-22.

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